• 1080i

    An HD presentation format consisting of 1,080 vertical lines of display resolution in an interlaced scan.Most HD programming in the (terrestrial & satellite) is transmitted in the 1080i format.

  • 1080p

    An HD presentation format consisting of 1,080 vertical lines of display resolution in a progressive scan. While a growing number of HDTV monitors are capable of displaying 1080p content, 1080p sources are relatively limited.

  • 1440p

    An HD presentation format consisting of 1,440 vertical lines of display resolution in a progressive scan. Currently, this level of resolution is limited to PC applications (i.e. QXGA displays), but future generations of HDTVs may feature 1440p capability.

  • 3D

    Versions 1.4 and 1.4a of the HDMI Specification add support for three-dimensional (3D) video formats, establishing a foundation for 3D broadcast, movie, and gaming applications. Both the source device and the display need to support 3D functionality. The 3D formats supported include frame packing, top and bottom, and side by side (full and half)

  • 480i

    A non-HD presentation format consisting of 480 vertical lines of display resolution in an interlaced scan. Terrestrial and satellite TV providers – analog and digital – still transmit the majority of their programming in 480i format.

  • 480p

    A non-HD presentation format consisting of 480 vertical lines of display resolution in a progressive scan. Progressive-scan DVD players typically output a 480p signal.

  • 4K

    Advanced display technologies that will deliver roughly four times the screen resolution of 1080p monitor.

  • 720p

    An HD presentation format consisting of 720 vertical lines of display resolution in a progressive scan. A limited amount of HD programming in the U.S. (terrestrial & satellite) is transmitted in 720p format.

  • AC-3

    The digital audio format used for DTV broadcasts in the United States.

  • Analog

    Analog systems represent data as a series of variations in some measurable, physical quantity, such as voltage or waveform.

  • ARC - YYCC601

    A Color Space used primarily in digital photography applications and supported in HDTVs with the 1.4 version of the HDMI specification.

  • Aspect Ratio

    The ratio of screen width to screen height. For television monitors it is either 4:3 (“standard”) or 16:9 (“widescreen”). NTSC  analog TV systems use a 4:3 aspect ratio, while ATSC uses the wider 16:9 aspect ratio. Movie theaters use a number of different aspect ratios, some even wider than 16:9.

  • ATC - Authorized Testing Center. In order to verify compliance with the HDMI technical specification, components are tested in ATCs operated by HDMI Licensing, LLC. Products are tested according to a Compliance Test Specification (CTS). ATCs are located in Europe, Asia, and North America.

  • ATC

    Authorized Testing Center. In order to verify compliance with the HDMI technical specification, components are tested in ATCs operated by HDMI Licensing, LLC. Products are tested according to a Compliance Test Specification (CTS). ATCs are located in Europe, Asia, and North America.

  • ATSC

    Advanced Television System Committee technical standard. The digital replacement for the legacy NTSC broadcast standard.

  • Audio Return Channel

    Allows an HDMI-connected TV to send an audio signal “upstream” to an AV receiver or Home Theater in a Box when the TV is the source of the audio (such as an internal tuner of an internal DVD/Blu-ray player), eliminating the need for a separate S/PDIF cable. An optional HDMI feature that must be supported by both devices.

  • Bandwidth

    The carrying capacity of a data interconnect. High-bandwidth connections are also called high-speed connections, because they can transmit large quantities of data very quickly. HDMI has extremely high bandwidth capacity: up to 10.2 gigabits per second.

  • Blu-ray Disc

    One of two potential successor technologies to the DVD, using multi-layer disc technology and a blue laser to deliver feature-length movies in HD resolution HDMI is the interconnect standard for Blu-ray Disc players.

  • Cable Equalization

    A technology used in many HDMI receiver chips to boost the incoming signal, allowing the sink device (TV, projector, monitor, etc.) to compensate for weaker signals. Components employing cable equalization technology can be connected with longer cable runs than might otherwise be practical.

  • CAT-5/CAT-6 Cable

    Category 5 and Category 6 cabling is used in Ethernet and Fast Ethernet networks, and has also been adapted to transmit an HDMI signal. Both cables feature four twisted-pair copper wires and an RJ-45 connector, with the main difference being that CAT-6 has tighter tolerances for line noise and crosstalk. CAT-5/CAT-6 has been successfully used to transmit HDMI over extremely long cable runs, i.e. 40-50 meters.

  • Category 1 HDMI Cable

    A Standard HDMI cable is one that is tested to performance standards that satisfy the requirements of most consumers. It is performance tested to 74.5 MHz, and can reliably transmit a 1080i or 720p signal up to 15 meters. Standard HDMI Cables are referred to as Category 1 cables in the HDMI specification.

  • Category 2 HDMI Cable

    High Speed HDMI cables are tested to a more rigorous performance standard, aimed at meeting the needs of high-end home theater systems. It is performance tested to 340 MHz, and can reliably transmit a 1080p signal (and more) up to 7.5 meters. High Speed HDMI Cables are referred to as Category 2 cables in the HDMI specification.

  • CEC

    One of the channels in an HDMI connection is dedicated to a set of advanced control functions, collectively known as CEC. When enabled by the manufacturer, CEC functionality allows connected devices to control each other in useful ways. For instance, a single command on a remote control can be used to play a DVD, or to launch other complex activities across multiple devices in a home theater system.

  • Codec

    A program used for encoding and decoding a digital signal, usually employing compression/decompression algorithms to streamline the data and conserve bandwidth.

  • Color Banding

    A symptom of insufficient color depth, color banding occurs when a monitor is unable to render smooth color gradients, and instead presents stripes or bands of color, especially in very light or very dark areas of an image. This occurs because the human eye is extraordinarily sensitive to color gradations, and can detect the change from one shade to another when color depth is limited.

  • Color Depth

    A measurement of the number of bits used to represent the color of a single pixel. Greater color depth gives a larger number of distinct colors, i.e. millions or billions of colors, allowing for smoother color gradients.

  • Color Gamut

    DTVs and other digital devices are not designed to display the entire available spectrum of colors discernible to the human eye, but rely instead on a subset of these colors known as a color space, color model, or color gamut. The traditional color space for TVs has been the RGB model, but newer sets are being designed to accommodate the broader x.v.Color model, which can display more of the visible spectrum. Digital cameras also frequently use a color model that is wider than RGB, such as Adobe YYCC601.

  • Color Space

    DTVs and other digital devices are not designed to display the entire available spectrum of colors discernible to the human eye, but rely instead on a subset of these colors known as a color space, color model, or color gamut. The traditional color space for TVs has been the RGB model, but newer sets are being designed to accommodate the broader x.v.Color model, which can display more of the visible spectrum. Digital cameras also frequently use a color model that is wider than RGB, such as Adobe YYCC601.

  • Compliance Testing Specification (CTS)

    Manufacturers who license HDMI technology are required to put their products through a formal testing process defined in the HDMI CTS. Compliance testing under the CTS includes both manufacturer self-testing and submission of products to an Authorized Testing Center, or ATC.

  • Compliant Product

    A Compliant Product is typically a consumer electronics or personal computing product manufactured by a licensed HDMI Adopter. Compliant Products incorporate the HDMI Specification and receive passing results when tested against the Compliance Test Specification (CTS). The use of the HDMI Logo on products or packaging is one of the indicators that you are buying a Compliant Product.

  • Component Video

    A legacy video connection for home theater equipment, using three separate cables to send a picture in three discrete color channels, e.g. red, green, and blue.

  • Compression

    Technologies designed to increase the carrying capacity of a data connection by compacting the data stream at one end and re-expanding it at the other end. With the exception of  lossless audio codecs, compression and decompression algorithms for audio and video are inherently “lossy,” meaning that data are lost in the process. One of the advantages of HDMI over other connection technologies is its enormous carrying capacity, which makes compression unnecessary.

  • Consumer Electronics Control (CEC)

    One of the channels in an HDMI connection is dedicated to a set of advanced control functions, collectively known as CEC. When enabled by the manufacturer, CEC functionality allows connected devices to control each other in useful ways. For instance, a single command on a remote control can be used to play a DVD, or to launch other complex activities across multiple devices in a home theater system.

  • Content Type

    Advanced functionality that allows a TV to automatically optimize its settings to match the content type it is currently receiving, and to automatically switch viewing modes when a new content type is selected. This is an optional HDMI feature that must be supported by the TV.

  • CTS

    Manufacturers who license HDMI technology are required to put their products through a formal testing process defined in the HDMI CTS. Compliance testing under the CTS includes both manufacturer self-testing and submission of products to an Authorized Testing Center, or ATC.

  • Deep Color™

    The expanded bandwidth of HDMI 1.3 is allowing manufacturers to design displays with much greater Color Depth. These new “Deep Color” monitors will be capable of rendering many more distinct hues than current displays – up to trillions of colors rather than thousands or millions.

  • Digital

    Digital systems represent data in binary form, encoding it as a series of zeroes and ones.

  • Digital Audio Cable

    An audio-only digital interface that transmits audio data over either an optical cable (TOSLINK) or a coaxial cable with RCA connectors. Sometimes used in conjunction with HDMI-connected systems to transmit audio from the TV’s internal tuner back “upstream” to an AV receiver. Newer devices with Audio Return Channel functionality make this configuration obsolete, relying on the HDMI connection to transmit audio both to and from the TV.

  • DiiVa

    The “Digital Interface for Audio and Video,” a proposed interface standard for digital audio and video for China. Not widely supported in the industry.

  • DisplayPort

    A digital display interface standard developed by VESA. It enjoys some support among computer manufacturers as a replacement for DVI and VGA video connectivity.

  • Dolby Digital

    A family of multi-channel audio codecs from Dolby Laboratories, based on AC-3 technology, that includes Dolby Digital, Dolby Digital EX, Dolby Digital Live, Dolby Digital Surround EX, and Dolby Digital Plus.

  • Dolby TrueHD

    An advanced audio codec developed by Dolby Laboratories. Dolby TrueHD is a lossless audio format, meaning that no audio information is lost when the signal is compressed and uncompressed.

  • DSD

    Direct-Stream Digital, the trademark name used by Sony and Philips for the audio encoding technology used in the Super Audio CD (SACD). Also known as One-bit audio.

  • DTS

    A family of multi-channel audio codecs from Digital Theater Systems, Inc., including DTS, DTS-ES, DTS

    Neo:6, and DTS 96/24. DTS audio codecs are used in both commercial and home theater applications.

  • DTS-HD Master Audio

    An advanced audio codec developed by Digital Theater Systems. DTS-HD Master Audio is a lossless audio format, meaning that no audio information is lost when the signal is compressed and uncompressed.

  • DTV

    Digital televisions, the successor technology to analog TV, are televisions capable of receiving a digital terrestrial or cable broadcast signal, like ATSC (North America) or DVB (Europe).

  • DVI (DVI-D)

    Digital Visual Interface, a predecessor technology to HDMI. There are different versions of DVI for PC and CE applications – DVI-D is the version used in CE devices. DVI is based on the same technology as HDMI, so the two connections are completely compatible – however a separate set of connections is required to transmit the audio signal, since DVI transmits video only.

  • EDID (EDID-ROM)

    A memory chip (ROM), included in most HD devices, containing essential information about that device. When connected via HDMI, EDID data is shared so that other components can read its make, model, and capabilities through theDSD channel. EDID stands for Extended Display Identification Data, and is defined by VESA, a video standards organization.

  • EDTV

    A widescreen television capable of displaying a 480p signal.

  • Frame Rate

    The frequency with which a video image is refreshed, expressed as either frames per second (i.e. 60 fps) or as an equivalent frequency (i.e. 60 Hz). Faster refresh rates tend to render smoother motion sequences. Refresh rates for broadcast TV vary by region – for example, European HD systems run at 50 Hz.

  • HD

    High definition. Usually used to describe any device capable of generating or displaying a signal with a resolution of at least 720 vertical lines (i.e. 720p). Another accepted definition is any signal containing at least one million pixels of video data in a single frame (vertical resolution x horizontal resolution).

  • HDCP

    High-bandwidth Digital Content Protection. Developed by Intel, HDCP is an authentication system designed to protect copyrighted audiovisual content. Most HDMI-enabled and DVI-enabled devices also employ HDCP.

  • HD-DVD

    High-definition DVD, one of two potential successor technologies to the DVD. A high-density optical disc format designed for the storage of high-definition video. HDMI is the interconnect standard for HD-DVD players.

  • HDMI

    High Definition Multimedia Interface. A 19-pin digital connection that transmits both high-definition uncompressed video and multi-channel audio through a single cable. HDMI is the preferred connection for HD devices.

  • HDMI 1.4

    The HDMI technical Specification has been updated since its inception, and HDMI 1.4 was released in 2009. While all versions of the spec are backward-compatible, devices built to the 1.4 standard may feature extended capabilities not found in earlier devices. For instance, newer TVs and disc players might take advantage of HDMI 1.4’s support for 3D video, but would still be fully compatible with older devices in non-3D applications.

  • HDMI 1.4a

    A recent release of the HDMI Specification, Version 1.4a adds support for some additional 3D video formats (broadcast), making the interface more widely compatible with emerging 3D technologies.

  • HDMI 2.0

    HDMI 2.0, which is backwards compatible with earlier versions of the HDMI specification, significantly increases bandwidth up to 18Gbps and adds key enhancements to support market requirements for enhancing the consumer video and audio experience.

  • HDMI Adopter

    Companies that are licensed to use HDMI technology are known as HDMI Adopters. Only HDMI Adopters can incorporate HDMI technology into their products and are authorized to use the official HDMI Logo.

  • HDBaseT

    HDBaseT is a connectivity standard for whole-home and commercial distribution of uncompressed HD multimedia content. The cornerstone of HDBaseT technology is 5Play™, a feature set that converges uncompressed full HD digital video, audio, 100BaseT Ethernet, power over cable and various control signals through a single LAN cable.

  • HDMI Ethernet Channel

    An optional HDMI feature that adds high-speed networking capabilities to an HDMI link, equivalent to a 100 MB Ethernet connection. Connected devices can share an Internet connection or take advantage of other networking capabilities. Both sending and receiving devices must support the feature, and the connection must be made with a conforming cable, either Standard HDMI with Ethernet or High Speed HDMI with Ethernet.

  • HDMI Micro Connector

    The smallest HDMI connector type, similar in size to a Micro USB connector.

  • HDMI Repeater

    A device that both receives and sends HDMI signals, such as an AV receiver. A/V receivers are considered HDMI repeaters.

  • HDMI Sink

    A device that receives an HDMI signal, such as an HDTV.

  • HDMI Source

    A device that sends an HDMI signal, such as a DVD player or Set-top box.

  • HDTV

    High Definition Television. A widescreen television capable of displaying a 720p signal or better.

  • HEC

    An optional HDMI feature that adds high-speed networking capabilities to an HDMI link, equivalent to a 100 MB Ethernet connection. Connected devices can share an Internet connection or take advantage of other networking capabilities. Both sending and receiving devices must support the feature, and the connection must be made with a conforming cable, either Standard HDMI with Ethernet or High Speed HDMI with Ethernet.

  • High Speed HDMI Cable

    High Speed HDMI cables are tested to a more rigorous performance standard, aimed at meeting the needs of high-end home theater systems. It is performance tested to 340 MHz, and can reliably transmit a 1080p signal (and more) up to 7.5 meters. High Speed HDMI Cables are referred to as Category 2 cables in the HDMI specification.

  • High Speed HDMI Cable with Ethernet

    A High Speed HDMI Cable that also supports HDMI Ethernet Channel functionality, providing a channel for a 100 MB/sec Ethernet link between connected devices.

  • Interlaced Scan

    In an interlaced scan, only half the screen is refreshed at a time. The video signal beam skips every other line, and fills in the missing lines on the next pass.

  • Licensed Product

    A Compliant Product is typically a consumer electronics or personal computing product manufactured by a licensed HDMI Adopter. Compliant Products incorporate the HDMI Specification and receive passing results when tested against the Compliance Test Specification (CTS). The use of the HDMI Logo on products or packaging is one of the indicators that you are buying a Compliant Product.

  • Lip Sync

    One of the new features enabled in HDMI 1.3, Lip Sync functionality enables the automatic synchronization of video and audio signals, correcting for processor lags that can force audio and video timing out of proper alignment.

  • Lossless Audio

    The latest multi-channel audio codecs are based on lossless compression algorithms with extremely high fidelity, such as Dolby TrueHD and DTS-HD Master Audio.

  • Mini HDMI Connector

    A miniature HDMI connector, introduced in HDMI 1.3, designed for use in mobile and handheld products where space is at a premium. The Mini HDMI Connector is functionally compatible with the same number of pins as the larger Standard HDMI Connector and completely compatible as well. The Mini HDMI Connector is referred to as the Type C Connector in the HDMI specification. See also Standard HDMI Connector.

  • MPEG

    A family of audio/video codecs developed by the Motion Picture Experts Group. The majority of TV content – cable, broadcast, and satellite – is currently transmitted in the MPEG-2 format. HD-DVD and Blu-ray Disc players, along with some recently launched satellites, rely on the newer and more powerful MPEG-4 format.

  • NTSC

    The legacy analog television broadcast system used in the US, being replaced by the ATSC digital system.

  • One-bit Audio

    Direct-Stream Digital, the trademark name used by Sony and Philips for the audio encoding technology used in the Super Audio CD (SACD). Also known as One-bit audio.

  • Optical Audio Cable

    A fiber-optic cable that transmits digital audio using the S/PDIF interface format.

  • PCM Audio

    A digital audio signal created by sampling an analog signal and expressing it in binary form. All versions of HDMI include the capacity to transmit eight channels of uncompressed, 192 kHz PCM audio.

  • Pixel depth

    A measurement of the number of bits used to represent the color of a single pixel. Greater color depth gives a larger number of distinct colors, i.e. millions or billions of colors, allowing for smoother color gradients.

  • Progressive Scan

    In a progressive scan, the entire screen is refreshed on every pass. The video signal beam does not skip alternate lines, but fills in each line every time, which tends to render smoother motion sequences.

  • Quad HD

    Advanced display technologies that will deliver roughly four times the screen resolution of a 1080p monitor.

  • Rec. 2020

    ITU-R Recommendation BT.2020, more commonly known by the abbreviations Rec. 2020 or BT.2020, defines various aspects of UHDTV such as display resolution, frame rate, chroma sub sampling, bit depth, and color space.

  • Refresh Rate

    The frequency with which a video image is refreshed, expressed as either frames per second (i.e. 60 fps) or as an equivalent frequency (i.e. 60 Hz). Faster refresh rates tend to render smoother motion sequences. Refresh rates for broadcast TV vary by region – for example, European HD systems run at 50 Hz.

  • Repeater

    A device that both receives and sends HDMI signals, such as an AV receiver. A/V receivers are considered HDMI repeaters.

  • RGB

    A Color Space used primarily in digital photography applications and supported in HDTVs with the 1.4 version of the HDMI specification.

  • S/PDIF

    An audio-only digital interface that transmits audio data over either an optical cable (TOSLINK) or a coaxial cable with RCA connectors. Sometimes used in conjunction with HDMI-connected systems to transmit audio from the TV’s internal tuner back “upstream” to an AV receiver. Newer devices with Audio Return Channel functionality make this configuration obsolete, relying on the HDMI connection to transmit audio both to and from the TV.

  • SACD

    Super Audio CD. An optical disc format for high-fidelity audio, using one-bit (DSD) audio encoding, developed by Sony and Philips Electronics as a replacement for the audio CD. Compared to the conventional CD, SACD boosts frequency response from 20kHz to 100kHz, and dynamic range from 96 to 120 db. Classical and jazz titles tend to dominate the SACD catalog.

  • SCART

    An analog connection standard, also known as Euroconnector or Peritel. SCART is a 21-pin connector used in Europe to interconnect satellite receivers, television sets, and other audiovisual equipment. SCART transmits both video and audio data in a single cable. The name comes from "Syndicat des Constructeurs d'Appareils Radiorécepteurs et Téléviseurs."

  • Set-top Box (STB)

    A device for decoding incoming AV signals, such as programs from a cable or satellite TV network. Many models also include DVR (digital video recorder) technology. Virtually all STBs now rely on HDMI output.

  • Sink

    A device that receives an HDMI signal, such as an HDTV.

  • Source

    A device that sends an HDMI signal, such as a Blu-ray player or Set-top box.

  • Standard HDMI Cable

    A Standard HDMI cable is one that is tested to performance standards that satisfy the requirements of most consumers. It is performance tested to 74.5 MHz, and can reliably transmit a 1080i or 720p signal up to 15 meters. Standard HDMI Cables are referred to as Category 1 cables in the HDMI specification.

  • Standard HDMI Cable with Ethernet

    A Standard HDMI Cable that also supports HDMI Ethernet Channel functionality, providing a channel for a 100 MB/sec Ethernet link between connected devices.

  • Standard HDMI Connector

    The 19-pin plug that is currently used in most HDMI-enabled products. The Standard HDMI Connector is referred to as the Type A HDMI Connector in the HDMI specification. See also Mini HDMI Connector.

  • STB

    A device for decoding incoming AV signals, such as programs from a cable or satellite TV network. Many models also include DVR (digital video recorder) technology. Virtually all STBs now rely on HDMI output.

  • sYCC601

    A Color Space used primarily in digital photography applications.

  • TMDS

    Transition Modulated Differential Signaling, a technology for transmitting serial data at very high speeds. TMDS is a core technology used in both DVI and HDMI.

  • TOSLINK

    A fiber-optic cable that transmits digital audio using the S/PDIF interface format.

  • Type A HDMI Connector

    A Standard HDMI cable is one that is tested to performance standards that satisfy the requirements of most consumers. It is performance tested to 74.5 MHz, and can reliably transmit a 1080i or 720p signal up to 15 meters. Standard HDMI Cables are referred to as Category 1 cables in the HDMI specification.

  • Type C HDMI Connector

    A miniature HDMI connector, introduced in HDMI 1.3, designed for use in mobile and handheld products where space is at a premium. The Mini HDMI Connector is functionally compatible with the same number of pins as the larger Standard HDMI Connector and completely compatible as well. The Mini HDMI Connector is referred to as the Type C Connector in the HDMI specification. See also Standard HDMI Connector.

  • VESA

    The Video Electronics Standards Association. The industry group responsible for the EDID standard and other technical specifications.

  • x.v.Color

    A new standard for an expanded, “wider” color space or gamut, enabled by HDMI 1.3 and being developed by Sony and Mitsubishi, among others. The xv color space (also known as xvYCC color) incorporates a much larger portion of the visible color spectrum than the older RGB color model.

  • xvYCC Color

    The original acronym the color model now known as x.v.Color.

  • YCbCr Color

    A family of color spaces, used in some HD applications, where color is expressed using a luma component plus red and blue chroma components, rather than by describing absolute color values, as in the RGB color model. Also known as YPbPr color.

  • YYCC601

    A Color Space used primarily in digital photography applications and supported in HDTVs with the 1.4 version of the HDMI specification.

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